Career Report Sources

Elisabeth, Chris, Kate

  • Report, Holmes. “Global Communications Report Reveals Scale Of Change Disrupting PR Industry.” The Holmes Report. Holmes Report News and Insights from the Global PR Industry, 18 Apr. 2016. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.
  • “Public Relations Specialist: Job Description, Duties and Requirements.” N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.
  • Forbes. Forbes Magazine, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.
    • Forbes business magazine gives insight to the basic knowledge one must have in the industry of public relations.
  • “Introduction to Public Relations.” Introduction to Public Relations. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.
    • introduces the history through the current world of public relations.
  • Mogel, Leonard. Making It in Public Relations: An Insider’s Guide to Career Opportunities. Mahwah (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002. Print.
    • How to break in career opportunities and how much you can earn.
  • Marston, John E. The Nature of Public Relations. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1963. Print.
    • Older account of what public relations was as a changing industry in 1963
    • All uses of public relations

Gmail Web 2.0 Assignment

Gmail was first released on April 1st, 2004 and was originally created by Paul Buchheit. At the time, Gmail’s competitors were email services such as Yahoo! Mail and Hotmail whose sites were fairly slow because they were both written in plain HTML, which caused the server to reload the entire webpage for every action. However, Gmail was able to get around this by integrating advanced search capabilities which gave an opportunity to users of letting them keep their emails forever instead of deleting them when they reached their storage limit. Also, Gmail gave users 1 GB of free space compared to the 2-4 MB of space that was standard at the time. Then, exactly one year later, Gmail increased the inbox size to 2 GB and adding features like formatted editing. Which allowed Google to advertise Gmail as a 2 GB email service. Today, there are around 1 billion people who have a Gmail account and users are allowed 15 GB of free space; and able to receive emails up to 50 MB in size.

Some of the forces that contributed to Gmail’s evolution were innovations such as the smartphone and WiFi. Google has released a mobile app version of Gmail, which allowed users to check their Gmail from their phones and able to run Java applications. And with the help of free public WiFi, people could check their Gmail where ever there is a WiFi connection. Nowadays, Gmail is now more integrated with the majority of Google. For example, Google has connected Gmail to Google, Google+, Google Drive, and Youtube. This allows the user to have the same account for anything Google, which in turn simplifies having to remember five different passwords.

Web 2.0 technologies allowed Gmail to evolve and let people to connect and interact easier, faster, and better. Gmail is a Web 2.0 service because it is a modern and ever evolving technology that allows people to connect with one another while integrating its other Google features that optimizes the users experience of everything, Google.


Megan, Sydney, Chris


Netflix, an online DVD and streaming service, has transformed industry of video streaming, the way viewers watch movies in the present day. The company first started out in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph who co-founded Netflix together. In 1998, Netflix launched its first DVD rental and sales site, In 1999, they introduced the flat fee for unlimited DVD rentals on a monthly basis. In 2000, they introduced personalized movie recommendations, and then in 2007 online streaming began, and allowed users to stream on personal computers. From 2009-2010, the ability to stream Netflix from all internet connected began. Netflix then from 2011-2015 spread to all different parts of the country starting out with the Caribbean, and moving all the way to Australia, Europe, and Japan. Then finally in 2016, Netflix became available worldwide. Over time, Netflix added new features such as being able to buy more screens available to stream at one time for an increased price every month, the ability to download movies onto your devices so users can watch without internet connection, and Netflix has even come out with their own Netflix original shows such as Orange is The New Black, House of Cards, or Stranger Things. Netflix currently has approximately 93 million subscribers worldwide, and more than 49 million are in the United States.

The evolution of Netflix has transformed the way people around the world now watch television and movies. Before services such as Netflix and Redbox were invented, Blockbuster was the service most people around the country used to rent movies. Over time, Netflix was one of the main causes for the downfall and bankruptcy of the company. Netflix did not single handedly take down Blockbuster, but the combination of online streaming services such as Netflix, Hulu or Amazon all fostered the slow downfall of the company. Netflix evolved with new and innovative ways to keep its customers intrigued in its services by coming up with personalized recommendations for users based on what they have already watched. Blockbuster eventually went out of business due to the less demand for their services, and a higher demand for more accessible services such as Netflix, which has transformed the industry of movie streaming.

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It was an interesting way how Netflix came to be. When CEO Reed Hastings returned an VHL tape and was charged for a $40.00 late fee, he came up with an innovative idea of a movie rental mail service. CD’s were not well known in 1997 but Reed Hastings went and mailed 24 cd’s to himself and they came back in perfect condition. Soon after the company had been started. At first the company worked more like a blockbuster because it did not have subscription based customers. But this way of receiving DVD’s was not very successful so the company went on a limb with the idea of subscriptions. After the first month of free trials, the company saw a 90% renewal rate.  In the recent past Netflix and other online entertainment subscribers have left companies like Blockbuster in the dust and bankrupt.

Web 2.0 services and applications make possible more dynamic interactions between clients and servers, more engaging webpage displays and applications and ultimately more direct, interactive and participative user-to-user interactions than heretofore experienced on the web. Netflix is a great example of a Web 2.0 service because of its changing evolution, talked about in the first two paragraphs. All the time Netflix is changing its website structure, primarily to maximize user efficiency. For example, recently Netflix has changed the way to scroll through movies on its website and it now offers a service where you can download shows or movies to watch when not connected to Wi-Fi. Also Netflix now has movie preferences that are specifically tailored to show the user TV shows or movies they might like.   

Before the emergence of Netflix, blockbuster dominated the rental movie and gaming sphere. Blockbuster had its own store where people could walk in and rent videos and gained its popularity in the late nineties and early 2000s.  Eventually, Blockbusters around the country shut down because mail rentals, such as Netflix took over. Now consumers can rent videos and receive them within days in the mail without having to go to the blockbuster store.  Later came On Demand, where consumers could rent movies and record their favorite Television shows through their TV providers.  Finally Netflix changed their format, where consumers could now pay a monthly fee and receive seasons of shows and movies without those pesky commercials.  Teenagers and young adults were some of the early users of Netflix because they could watch their favorite shows on their computers, iPhone, and even through their Xbox or PlayStation.  In some senses Netflix replaced cable for some people, because some people would rather pay the smaller fee for Netflix than the idea of cable TV.  In today’s current society, most people do not watch live TV because they do not have time, or refuse to waste their time watching the advertisements.  Instead, they turn to Netflix because they can watch it on multiple devices and multiple people can watch at the sane time.  Culturally, most family’s and friends do not sit to watch shows anymore, but rather watch them on their own or through Netflix.  According to a Huffington Post article, more than 40% of all households have an internet subscription to Netflix, Hulu or Amazon (36% have Netflix). In another study, researchers found the number of video subscriptions to some of the major TV providers dropped over 1.2 million in 2014.  Now more and more TV providers must find a way to compete with these online streaming companies in order to acquire more consumers.  Therefore, economically TV providers are losing money (and have to spend more money on streaming devices) and Netflix is gaining more popularity and profit.

Because large TV providers are losing money to these companies, Netflix supports the Net Neutrality act enacted in 2015.   Supporters of the act claim the laws prevent ISP’s from engaging in potentially anticompetitive practices such as, charging certain websites for faster speeds within their networks, which gives them the technical advantage.  Internet companies, like Netflix and Google, support the act as well as other smaller companies.  However in recent news, Trump’s FCC boss, Ajit Pai, plans to undo the net neutrality acts.  Therefore ISP’s could start charging companies more for each standard video and essentially hike the price for consumers.

Youtube in Web 2.0

By Mike Filardi, Mary Kate Buckman, Aaron Petit,  and Thomas DiMarco

The video sharing website, YouTube, was created on February 14th in the year 2005 by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim. This internet start up had small beginnings, but was helped along by Sequoia Capital and Artis Capital Management, two venture capitalist firms that saw potential in the website. They, along with PayPal CEO Roelof Botha, invested money for the website’s creation, upkeep, and early innovations. These innovations include the ability for users to subscribe to the creators they liked, upload videos via cell phone, and host longer videos. These and many other changes were added to the original YouTube. Then, in 2006, it was bought by Google. This brought the more money for YouTube to invest in adding features and fixing flaws in its website, doing so allowed it to stand apart from many other websites. YouTube entered Web 2.0 by allowing for users to comment on videos as well as share, rate, and “like” them. It also allowed for a good deal of customization in user profiles and for what kind of content would be recommended to them. This, plus new technology made YouTube extremely popular. New technology, such as those enabling increased broadband access and software like Adobe Flash, has made it easier for people to become both consumers and creators of YouTube content. It has brought in many new users. With this success, YouTube, was able to form marketing and advertising partnerships with many companies, the first of which was with NBC. This made it so that YouTube could make money off the videos it hosted by allowing for ads, and those ads attracted new creators since they were able to monetize content with revenue from those ads.

As part of that deal, YouTube would notify the company of instances in which their copyrighted material was being posted, something that many copyright holders were concerned about. Both then and now, YouTube has had to deal with its users uploading copyrighted content without the consent of the copyright owners. In the early days of YouTube, the file sharing site Napster became infamous due to its court battles with the music industry over the illegal sharing of copyrighted songs. YouTube, in a move to avoid such problems, decided to take a policy of regulating their content, flagging potentially ilegal uses, and notifying the holders of the copyright. The company has also set up the means to allow for  copyright holders to request the takedown of such content. This is still a problem today, many of YouTube’s content creators use copyrighted materials in their content and cite Fair Use in defense, how YouTube handles this will likely determine the future of their company.

Youtube was preceded by other video sharing websites like “shareyourworld” and “vimeo.” They offered the same basic service, but none of them ever reached the popularity that Youtube would go on to receive. That popularity is due in large part to the user friendly design of the website which attracted a lot of early adapters. Those were the people who chose to host their videos on Youtube before it was established as the top video hosting website. The website gained that prestige due to having such a large user base. The force that led to this is the widespread availability of video cameras and basic editing tools that came with the introduction of smart phones. This in turn led to an increased interest in “ordinary people” to attempt to become famous via the internet, and Youtube proved to be able to make that happen for some.

As YouTube increased in its popularity, YouTube’s popularity evolved from many different forms starting off as a basic video making site inspired by others. Because of Web 2.0 many frequent users of YouTube are able to use there video making skills to the test whether it be making a channel or simply testing out what they can do. Video making and especially streaming itself grew because of the innovators in YouTube. Because of  the Web 2.0 of YouTube, streaming has evolved to examples being Twitch and even news casting on famous networks like CNN. The essay in the textbook explains how “the popularity of Web 2.0 applications demonstrates that, regardless of their levels of technical expertise, users can wield technologies in more active ways than had been apparent previously to traditional media producers and technology innovators”. YouTube has not only evolved in videos, but in video making as a

Web 2.0 Technology Assignment

Kat Fletcher, Holly Lloyd, Elisabeth Lutz

The way in which we use the internet and interact with one another has been evolving and rapidly changing over a relatively short period of time. The term “Web 2.0” defines the way in which the internet is used today. Web 2.0 does not mean that the internet has changed in some big way because it has not in the sense that you type in an address to navigate through the internet and you need the proper skills to create a website. Instead, the term “web 2.0” refers to how we, as normal relatively unskilled people, interact with one another and how we use the internet as a communication tool. The term also relates to how companies use our communication tendencies to benefit them for a sake of a profit or brand recognition.

The book defines the consumer- producer relationship that has developed as a fundamental part of Web 2.0 in several main points. “O’Reilly (2005) distinguishes between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 companies on the basis of whether they have ‘embraced the power of the web to harness collective intelligence’ by facilitating user-generated content and capitalizing on users’ products for their own survival and profit.” In addition, “Web 2.0 is not a particular technology or product licensed or for sale, but rather a business model – a ‘way of architecting software and businesses’ (Hinchcliffe, 2006) into companies that seek to prosper on the basis of user-created content.”
This definition of Web 2.0 fits snapchat perfectly. Snapchat in its beginning stages did not have any advertisements whatsoever. It was simply a free app where you sent funny picture to your friends that disappeared after a few seconds. As the popularity of the app grew more and more content was added. With the increase of content and users came the introduction of advertisements into the application. Now users receive short ads for different products aimed at a young demographic. In addition to these ads, big commercial companies such as the Food Network, ESPN, Cosmopolitan, and even Vogue have featured content that users can view. This content changes daily and again is market towards a younger audience. This content is not advertisement, however, it is a way for these major brands to gain recognition and potentially gain a base of clients for when this generation grows up and has the resources and capital to spend on a subscription to the company’s magazine or other products.

In addition to the way companies interact with consumers, the book also defines how the interaction between people on the internet has created the new Web 2.0. The book states, “The user profile is the ‘fundamental commodity of Web 2.0’, according to Beer and Burrows (2007), as users simultaneously produce self-presentations for fellow users and consume profiles of fellow users.” Moreover, “Individuals ‘speak’ in their own spaces, yet are the audience for the works of others and the collective exhibition. Designers become transformed by their actions; meanwhile, people who visit exhibits as ‘audience’ often participate as designers by creating their own works.” In social media apps now, like snapchat, everyone is an audience member and a self- producer. On Snapchat you either take pictures or videos of yourself and share them with an individual, select group of friends, or to all of your followers. This is the self- producing side of the app. You yourself are creating content for others to consume and be an audience member of the “you show.” On the other hand, you become an audience member of your friend’s snaps or stories. This relationship is fundamental to the the term “Web 2.0” and the changes in the ways in which we communicate with one another in the world today.

Snapchat is a mobile app that allows users to send temporary photos and videos as a means of communications with their friends on the app. When Snapchat launched in 2011, it was strictly a photo-sending app. Users could add friends and send them photos. In the past six years, Snapchat has drastically evolved into a multi-feature app that millions of people across the world use daily. Like any other app, Snapchat added updated throughout the years. These updates changed the way users connected with and used the app. Since 2011, Snapchat’s timeline of updates continues to expand. Snapchat started off as a platform for sending pictures. When you send these photos, you acquire a score based off how much you use the app. You get points for sending and receiving snaps. Snapchat showed users who their three best friends were, aka the people they snapped the most. This best friend’s list was visible to the public. Then, Snapchat added a ten second video sending features. The best friend’s list became controversial, so Snapchat got rid of that. Throughout the years, this app has become popular across the globe. Snapchat has continues to update their app for several reasons. First of all, they want to offer their users the best experience possible. Second, the creators of Snapchat want to keep their app interesting and relevant. Adding new features ensures that users won’t get bored and stop using the app. Another reason Snapchat updates is app is because they take the feedback from their users into consideration.

There have been countless updates added to Snapchat since 2011, but we chose to only discuss the ones that were really popular and innovative. The first big update was Snapchat streaks. Streaks show up as a number to the right of your chat with someone. Each day you Snapchat, a number gets added onto the streak and shows how many days in a row you have been snapping someone. This is popular among users because it shows how long they’ve been in contact with someone and motivates them to continue snapping them so the streak doesn’t break. Next, Snapchat added stories in 2013. Posting to your story means that you’re posting a photo or video that will last for up to 24 hours and can be seen by all of your friends. This update was important because it helped users share the moments of their lives with all of their contacts and to express themselves freely. After stories came geotags. Geotags don’t seem crucial, but they help others to share their location. In 2015, Snapchat added the discover feature to their app. Discover is a feature that allows different companies such as Cosmopolitan, Buzzfeed, People, CNN, ESPN, and many others to share their news in order to reach a larger demographic. Discover is a cool and easy way to access news on the daily.

The early form of snap chat was simple. Now it is completely innovative and continues to come up with ideas to keep people intrigued.

As iphones became more popular and people were seeking for new and cool apps to have on their phone, snap chat knew that they were going to have to continue coming up with new innovative ways to make snapchat fun. With the addition of video sending, and streaks, there are plenty of other things that snapchat started to keep our generation intrigued. “Stories” allow people to post videos and pictures of what they are doing within a 24-hour period, and a person’s snap chat friends can see what cool things their friends do throughout the day. Stories keep people wanting to go on and off the app to see what is going on outside of themselves. Along with these things you can read magazines, or watch news on your phones making it much more convenient to see what is going on in the world, and talk to your friends at the same time. These are the types of things that snapchat needed to add to keep people from getting bored of their app.


When people of our generation get bored of an app, they move on and download new things. To keep snapchat as one of the most popular forms of social media, they needed to be coming up with these new ideas. Viral communication is used through snap chat to market different things on advertisements that come up on your snap chat feed as well. Although advertisements may be frustrating, there are not enough for somebody to not want to use snapchat. Our generation made snapchat popular once the app started off. People love how the pictures that you send to someone can disappear after a few seconds, and it became a really convenient way to see what  your friends or acquaintances are doing throughout their day.


Insta 2.0

Kate Mazza, Julia Mulry, Regina McCormick, Hari Roth

Instagram is a mobile photo-sharing application and service that allows users to share pictures and videos either publicly or privately on the service.  Instagram was released in 2010 for iOS users, and then for all smartphone devices in 2012.  What started out as a simple application has turned into a multimillion dollar Facebook-owned business that has taken over social media.  With 600 million actively monthly users, Instagram is one of the most well-used platforms.  Adding features such as editing tools and filters allows people to alter their image into the way they wish to see themselves.  By adding features such as Instagram stories, users can post quick snapshots that last for the day, rather than a permanent picture.  Boomerang, which takes a burst of photos and stitches them together into a high-quality mini video that plays forward and backward, recently became an added feature of Instagram.  All of these evolutionary features have provided growth for the company and allowed for Instagram’s high relevancy in the social media world. 

Web 2.0 is defined as technologies that require very little technological expertise. They allow users to create accounts and actively use social media and technology more than other medias. Instagram is a perfect example of a Web 2.0 platform. The article proves Web 2.0 is different from other media because it is solely generated by users, in contrast to print and broadcasted media. Instagram is a form of media that relies on users to generate content and growth. It is similar to platforms such as LinkedIn and Twitter; however, in the past several years, its growth has been profound. For example, celebrities are able to send out information or get publicity without having to go through broadcasting media. It allows them to have a more personal relationship with fans and confirm information that is truthful. Web 2.0 is changing the face of communication and is a fast, easy way to post content.

In Instagram’s expansion as a Web 2.0 technology, it has allowed users to use features similar to other platforms like Facebook and Snapchat. Recently Insta has added features such as Instagram live videos and Insta stories. These features allow users to speedily share social statuses and information to followers. Instagram has made it easily accessible to share information.


The forces that drove the early innovation of Instagram was the need for a quick and easy photo sharing app that enhanced photos and made a large amount of them readily available. With the growth of general social media at the time of its inception as well as smartphones people were looking for an outlet to share what they have seen and done. Instagram has evolved greatly over the years; starting as an app with a few hundred users called Burbn that would become Instagram in the October of 2010. It was only available on Apple devices at first but eventually became accessible to Android users in 2012 once there was more demand. The app was free but needed to make money somehow and as a result the market and profit of Instagram drastically grew when they introduced ads to the platform in 2013 after being bought by Facebook in 2012 for $1 billion. The app is continually growing and expanding as they are making more and more profit and have 600 million monthly users. One of the only regulatory forces involved with Instagram is the FTC which covers multiple facets of advertising; including making sure that ads from celebrities are clearly marked as ads so that are not deceiving by any means.

The mediums that preceded Instagram in terms of form and content were older forms of social media such as MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter, all of which were used years ago but are not as popular as they are today. The early adapters were not anyone in particular as the app was put on the Apple App Store for all iPhone users to use. However, many of the early users were users of other forms of social media that were popular at the time. Because of all the new users the app has undoubtedly grown in many ways. This includes socially, economically, and culturally. Economically the app has grown vastly with large amount of profit now being made after ads were introduced in 2012. Some users from the app now also benefit economically as they can upload paid posts. In addition the app has grown socially and culturally as the name “Instagram” is known by people all over the world of all ages and backgrounds. The app is very popular having over 600 million monthly users as it is one of the most popular forms of social media today. In conclusion, Instagram is a very popular web 2.0 technology that has greatly advanced in many different ways.

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Dan Bilzerian and Corinne Olympios

By Holly Lloyd

Although these two are people that not everybody has probably heard of, their social media presence holds a huge impact on teenagers and young adults of this century. The text book essay goes into great detail about the use of celebrities by specific companies, to reach out to specific communities and draw their attention toward their product/message. Companies pay and hire these people according to there social media presence. All celebrities have a different aspect and way that they reach out to specific communities and people. Other people for instance, like Dan Bilzerian, are not too concerned about the people they reach out to, yet are just putting their life on display. As they do this though, people who follow them still attempt in living a life like they do . Dan Bilzerian and Corinne Olympios are two people who reach out specifically to a very similar audience. Bilzerian is more putting his life on display, while Olympios uses her TV fame to now be a public figure and hired by companies to promote their products.


Bilzerian simply became popular because of his wealth, and how he lives the “perfect life” that anyone in the world may want to live. His life specifically reaches out to young men who aspire to live the life Bilzerian does. His posts simply explain the life he lives and make it easy to understand why anybody would want to live his life. He is known as one of the wealthiest people in the world, and is simply a celebrity because of his wealth and social media.IMG_1364.PNG.png


Bilzerian simply promotes the rich American life that anyone would aspire to have. Posting pictures in his rich house with tons of girls all over him make young men only dream to live like Bilzerian. He posts about “being able to do whatever he wants because he is rich. Guns, cars, girls, planes, champagne, what could be better? He talks about when he gets bored with his life, because he doesn’t work, that he just heads to somewhere else around the world because wherever he was at that time was not good enough.


Although some people may think that Bilzerian is absurd, he showcases himself on social media purposely in that way. Bilzerian is so popular that he most recently even had a song written about him by T-Pain, with the most famous lyrics,

“I get 10 Brazilians like I’m Dan Bilzerian
Bitch I’m rich as f***, bitch I’m rich as f***
Them ho** can sick a duck, bit**** sick a duck
I can pull up on you with a million bucks
Bi*** I’m with the squad, we got a million trucks”

Very famous Corinne Olympios from the Bachelor, got immediately popular for her absurd performance on the show with crazy actions and hilarious comments. She basically got popular from her stupidity. Although this is why people like her, she embraces it and is making hundreds of thousands of dollars because of it. She advertises her own stupidity and comment from the show on her own instagram, and is interviewed by the most popular talk show hosts in the nation. She has been hired by a few companies to promote their products on her social media because of all of the attention that she has been generating by the young population of not only just teenage girls but adults and men as well. One of the most popular things talked about Corinne is how her hair was always perfectly curled. As you could guess, shortly after the show she was advertising for a hair product company. IMG_1366.PNG.png

She generates coupons for people that purchase the products that she promotes and is causing the young generation to quickly follow her and the things that she does. People love Corrine because of the way she carries herself and how she loves all of her fans and the people that loved watching her on the show. She has recently been interviewed by Michael Strahan, Ellen, Jimmy Fallon, and many others because she is causing this social uproar. IMG_1367.PNG.png

Over my time of following these celebrities, they have surprised me with all of the attention they cause. Between the two of them, there are 22,039,000 followers, and none of people who enjoy watching the lives of these two celebrities and public figures.

Celebrity Assignment

Elisabeth Lutz & Kat Fletcher

The essay from the textbook discusses how celebrities play a role in successful advertising for companies. Public figures in media serve a specific purpose and are supposed to have a specific impact. First of all, companies hire specific celebrities to represent their product because this person is well known. Therefore, audiences can identify with and relate to this specific person. The celebrities that are portrayed in the media can often be seen as role models depending on their social media activity. Celebrities are often well known before they are seen in a tv commercial or advertisement. This goes back to prove that big companies are hiring familiar faces because their ads are likely to receive more viewers if the person in the ad is famous prior to being in the ad.

We chose to evaluate the social media presence of Sophia Bush and Chrissy Teigen. Each of these celebrities uses social media in quite different ways. To start, Sophia Bush’s social media presence is extremely impactful and significant. Many celebrities use social media as an outlet to show off their lavish lifestyle, but Sophia Bush’s outlook on social media is drastically different. Sophia uses Twitter and Instagram to post about social issues that she is passionate about. She is trying to use her social media as a means to raise awareness towards issues that happen in our country each and every day. She is fighting for the rights of all people and is speaking her mind. Sophia Bush is against Donald Trump because she thinks the things he’s doing are an injustice to certain groups of people in our country. For example, she is against the idea of eradicating planned parenthood and posted a photo to raise awareness and stand by those who are going to be affected by this change. IMG_0623.PNG

Sophia supports the equality of all people. She recently posted this picture below for International Transgender Day. Transgenders often feel alone in this world because they are different than others. In this case, Sophia is using her Instagram to spread love to these people and show them that they are supported and loved.


Much of Sophia’s Instagram consists of positive messages of love like these ones. Her Twitter is very similar. She doesn’t post about petty topics such as her hair and makeup, nor does she dwell on her follower ratio. Instead, she tweets about issues she is passionate about. Her profile picture on Twitter is #StandWithPP. Once again, this shows she is not self absorbed with how she displays her appearance on social media but she instead portrays the important messages. Sophia Bush retweets material from others who share the same views as she does. She is very adamant about women’s rights, fighting against Donald Trump, and equality for all.

Sophia bush is also the star of Chicago PD and often tweets about her show. She loves all her fans and always reaches out to them and replies to their tweets. She is always trying to please her fans because she appreciates how devoted they are to her.IMG_0625.PNG

Chrissy Teigan on the other hand mainly uses social media platforms such as twitter and Instagram for sharing her personal life and promoting herself. The vast majority of Chrissy’s posts include pictures of her, her Husband John Legend (famous singer), and their daughter Luna. In addition to these personal posts Chrissy also posts advertisements for brands such as Smirnoff and Spike’s Lip Sync Battle that Chrissy appears on.

Before her overwhelming social media presence, Chrissy was a sports illustrated model that dated a little know singer who now is widely know around the world. You can argue that Chrissy’s and maybe even John’s success stems from Chrissy’s presence on twitter. With 4.5 million followers on twitter alone she captivates the twitter sphere with funny and sarcastic comments about things that people have said about her directly or just about life in general. Her social media presence got her noticed and now she is turning that presence in to a marketing tool for herself and the brands that she promotes.


Although there are obviously negative aspects of social media, it does allow for celebrities to connect with their fans. Social media allows celebrities to post content that is important to them. It allows fans to see celebrities for who they are and connect with them based on their interests. Chrissy Teigen and Sophia Bush utilize social media in different ways, but are still able to communicate with their fans just the same.

Ellen and The Rock Analysis

Megan, Sydney, Chris

In the reading, the text defines a media figure as an individual who people are familiar with, but who have not actually met. People relate to these unmet figures, as if they have met them in the real world. The text describes the nature of the imaginary social relationships with celebrities that appear in advertising.  The degree the people connected may range from just awareness to deep and abiding loyalty.  The media figure has some major functions that influence their audience, some of which include: an emotional outlet for positive and negative feelings, influence the behavior of viewers (to live in a particular lifestyle), and last, they celebrate the world of pop culture.  Advertisements at times can create illusions of interpersonal contact with viewers because some media figures speak directly out of the television and speak to the audience personally.  Through repeated use in an area of social media, the media figure helps viewers create a social web that allows the audience to form relationships, alter existing relationships, and possibly end relationships.  We chose to follow Dwayne “the rock” Johnson and Ellen on social media platforms to explore how the media creates these intimate social relationships.

Ellen DeGeneres is an American comedian, talk show host, actress, writer, and producer.  She is most famous for her daytime talk show, The Ellen DeGeneres show, which has successfully aired since 2003.   Ellen’s fans follow her Instagram, twitter, YouTube channels, and most importantly watch her show on the daily basis.  On the other hand, Dwayne Johnson, a popular actor and producer, actively engages his viewers with his Instagram and his twitter.  He has over 81 million followers on Instagram and has over 10 million followers on twitter.

The Rock communicates with his fans mainly by the use of Instagram and Twitter. He posts at least once per day, and his posts are mainly aimed at promoting his most recent movies or shows that he stars in. The Rock is involved in many television shows and movies currently, and his main ones that he promoted on his Instagram in the past week are Bay Watch, his show on HBO called “Rock and a Hard Place,” and “Jumanji Welcome to the Jungle”. He also posted an under armor campaign that he is promoting called “Project Rock”. His fitness is a main component of how he interacts with his fans, updating them on his fit life while also promoting products along with it. His posts about the movie Bay Watch that he stars in include other celebrities such as Zac Efron and Michael Phelps. We have learned that the Rock’s social media presence is revolved mainly around his fitness, as well as the promoting all of the forms of media he stars in.

Ellen communicates with her fans through her Instagram and Twitter as well. She however uses her Instagram mainly to promote the Ellen Show. She posts daily updates of sneak peek video clips of who will be on her talk show the next day, or she will post funny things showcasing her funny personality. Ellen’s main goal of her social media accounts is to post about her show trying to gain popularity for her show. She showcases her biggest guests, and tries to hyper her followers up in anticipation for her upcoming episodes.

These two celebrities slightly differ in how they communicate with their audiences. Both of their fame has come from TV or movies, but the way they post on their social media accounts is what makes them different. The Rock posts very lengthy Instagram captions that go very in depth about what he is trying to promote to his fans. Ellen on the other hand normally posts shorter captions with a photo or a video. Both celebrities use the appropriate form of communications towards their fans because the Rock is more aimed at promoting new products or movies that people may not be farmilar with while Ellen is promoting a show that most people already are educated about.

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Ellen mainly interacts with her fans on her twitter platform, and people form these connections with her because they see her on her daily talk show.  They see a normal friendly hilarious person who conducts interviews and has casual conversations with millions of celebrities and everyday people.  Ellen confidently speaks about her opinion to viewers and beyond the laughter, she has an underlying message about giving.  Ellen reminds people that we too have the power to make someone else’s life better by sharing our talents and thoughts.  Ellen’s talent as a natural comedian brings families and friends together in front of their television to watch her show.  Ellen specifically interacts with her fans on her twitter and tweeted one of the most famous selfies a couple of years ago that was one of the most liked and retweeted pictures.

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There are a few reasons why celebrities use social media.  One of them being for the same reason that any regular person would, to communicate with other. There other motive being using social media is to market themselves. Whether it is for the movie that they are going to be in or a song that is going to be released. Celebrities are the master users of social media because they can efficiently market their product on their own, while companies have entire teams dedicated to social media. The hook that celebrities have that most brands and regular people don’t have is that people are already interested in looking at their photos and learning about the narrative of their lives. For example, The Rock uses his Instagram to promote his movies and TV show by taking videos on set to show his followers what is going on.  Ellen also uses her Instagram to promote her TV show by posting funny clips from the show. To get more viewers and giver her followers a heads up, Ellen also posts pictures of who is going to be on the show the next day. By getting this type of traffic on their social media pages, celebrities can be in contact with their supporters and build a relationship backed with loyalty. Social media also allows celebrities to get feedback on their work, which makes there supports feel like they are a part of something. Another reason to follow these celebrities on their social media pages is for entertainment. Supporters and viewers want to know almost everything about who they are following, because it is something they aren’t able to have in their own lives.

Chance the Rapper & Kendrick Lamar Social Media Assignment

By: Thomas DiMarco and Omar Haque

In Alperstein’s essay, “Imaginary Social Relationships,” he speaks about the nature of the relationships between celebrities and their fans.  A celebrity is a person who has done something notable so that a very large amount of people know of and honor that person. Within this relationship, celebrities seek to reinforce their own appearance that keeps them at the same celebrity status.  They do this by posting things on social media and sometimes talking to fans on sites like twitter and Instagram.  What this does is create a perceived, personal relationship with their fans.  Their fans read the celebrity’s posts and learn more about them through news sites that are designated around celebrity news. This causes people to celebrate a celebrity’s achievements while also knowing a lot about their online personalities and personal lives, giving their fans the experience of being in a close relationship with that person.  While both parties do not know each other, the fans know so much about the celebrities that they almost feel like they know the celebrity and could get along with them.  In turn, this causes the celebrity’s fame to increase, helping their career.  Two celebrities that show how social media is used to create these imaginary social relationships are Kendrick Lamar and Chancelor Bennett/Chance the Rapper.  Both of these people are musicians who play in largely the same genres, however they create imaginary social relationships in different ways.

Chance the Rapper is very active on social media.  He often posts about his family, his upcoming concert tours, and the projects he’s working on. However, Kendrick Lamar is on the opposite side of the spectrum. He rarely posts on social media, except to announce his upcoming albums and a few of his shows. Chance the Rapper uses a variety of different types of social media, he most frequently uses Instagram and Twitter; although he also uses Snapchat, just not as often. On the other hand, Kendrick Lamar has an Instagram, but has no posts on it.  Along with that, he has a Twitter, but only posts announcements about his new albums, singles, and concerts.  Although, he does sometimes makes posts relating to musicians and other artistic people.  But overall, it is buildup for his or someone else’s work. What is different between the two is that obviously, Chance being active on social media makes him more relatable as a normal person than a celebrity. For example, Chance now has a daughter, and constantly posts about how much he loves being a father.  By giving up personal information and talking about his love for his daughter, he becomes relatable because he seems more human.  He reminds his fans of people they know (fathers, friends, etc.) and seems like a good-spirited and moral person as well.  On the other hand, although Kendrick Lamar has family and all, it is not very publicized; so, he does not have the same personability and relatability as Chance.